Месечни архиви: май 2015

People with anxiety are at increased risk of teeth grinding

People with social phobia or anxiety are at increased risk of bruxism – teeth grinding which causes tooth wear and fractures as well as jaw pain, a new research has found.

Anxiety experienced in social circumstances elevates the risk of bruxism, the findings showed.

“Interaction with people seems to be necessary to trigger bruxism in socially anxious people,” said lead researcher Ephraim Winocur from Tel Aviv University in Israel.

“By treating social anxiety, we will be able to treat bruxism as well,” Winocur said.

Although antidepressant drugs have previously been linked to bruxism, this study found no such association.

The researchers assessed 75 men and women in their early 30s using questionnaires.

One group of 40 people had social phobia, characterised by excessive fear in social situations.

A control group of 35 did not have social phobia. All the participants underwent psychiatric and dental exams. Bruxism symptoms and oral habits, such as gum chewing, nail biting, and small jaw movements with no tooth contact (“jaw play”), were all assessed.

Moderate-to-severe dental wear was found in 42.1 percent of the social phobia participants and 28.6 of controls.

The rate of jaw play was 32.5 percent in the phobia group and 12.1 percent in controls. Symptoms of awake bruxism were reported by 42.5 percent of social phobia patients and by percent percent of controls.

The study was published in the Journal of Oral Rehabilitation.

Source Article from http://indianexpress.com/article/lifestyle/health/social-phobia-puts-you-at-teeth-grinding-risk/

Popular heart drug may increase death risk

A popular drug used to treat heart disease may increase the risk of death in patients with heart problems, a new large-scale research has claimed.

There is conflicting evidence about whether digoxin, a drug that has been used worldwide for centuries to treat heart disease, might contribute to an increase in deaths in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) or congestive heart failure (CHF).

Now, the largest review of all the evidence to date shows that it is associated with an increased risk of death in these patients, particularly in those being treated for AF.

Researchers from the JW Goethe University in Frankfurt, Germany, conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of all studies published in peer-reviewed journals between 1993-2014 that looked at the effects of digoxin on death from any cause in AF and CHF patients.

They identified 19 relevant studies that included a total of 326,426 patients (235,047 AF and 91,379 CHF patients).

They found that among patients who were treated with digoxin, there was an overall 21 per cent increased risk of death from any cause compared to patients who were not receiving this treatment.

When they looked at the group of AF patients and the group of CHF patients separately, digoxin was associated with a 29 per cent and 14 per cent increased risk of death from any cause respectively, when compared to patients not receiving the drug.

Digoxin is extracted from the foxglove plant (digitalis) and it helps the heart beat more strongly and with a more regular rhythm.

It is commonly used in patients with atrial fibrillation (an irregular heartbeat) and also in patients with heart failure (congestive heart failure is when the heart’s function as a pump is impaired).

However, it can be difficult to use successfully as there is a narrow dose range at which it is effective and beyond which it can be dangerous.

Regular blood tests are required to test the levels of digoxin in the blood and high levels have been correlated with an increased death rate in patients.

Currently, its use is recommended in guidelines from the US and from the European Society of Cardiology for patients with heart failure and problems with control of the heart’s rhythm.

Researchers call for randomised controlled trials of digoxin, saying “until such proper randomised controlled trials are being completed, digoxin should be used with great caution (including monitoring plasma levels), particularly when administered for rate control in AF.”

“Our analysis, together with evidence from other studies, all point in the same direction: there is harm associated with the use of digoxin,” Stefan Hohnloser, Professor of Cardiology at the university, who led the study, said.

The study was published in the European Heart Journal.

Source Article from http://indianexpress.com/article/lifestyle/health/popular-heart-drug-may-increase-death-risk/

Arthritis patients at high risk of surprise heart attack

People suffering from rheumatoid arthritis are at increased risk of heart disease and about a fourth of them are likely to have a surprise heart attack, a new research has found.

The researchers found that the risk was increased even when patients showed no symptoms and was independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors such as smoking and diabetes.

“Our study suggests that one quarter of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and no symptoms of heart disease could have a heart attack without prior warning,” said Adriana Puente, cardiologist in the National Medical Centre “20 de Noviembre” ISSSTE in Mexico City, Mexico.

The study investigated the presence of ischaemia and infarction secondary to atherosclerotic disease (coronary artery disease) in 91 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and traditional cardiovascular risk factors but no symptoms of heart disease.

Patients in the study were 90 percent women and 59 years old on an average and had a similar frequency of cardiovascular risk factors as the general population.

Inflammatory markers, rheumatoid arthritis disease activity and risk factors were measured in all patients.

“Our study shows that one quarter of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and no symptoms of heart disease do have coronary heart disease. This means they are at increased risk of cardiovascular death,” Puente noted.

“Rheumatoid arthritis affects 1.6 percent of the general population and is the first cause of consultation in the rheumatology service. The condition nearly doubles the risk of a heart attack but most patients never knew they had heart disease and were never alerted about their cardiovascular risk,” Puente pointed out.

The findings were presented at ICNC 12 held in Madrid, Spain.

ICNC is organised by the Nuclear Cardiology and Cardiac CT section of the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI).

Source Article from http://indianexpress.com/article/lifestyle/health/arthritis-patients-at-high-risk-of-surprise-heart-attack/

Swap one daily sugary drink for water to cut type 2 diabetes risks

If you want to stay away from type 2 diabetes, choose water instead of sugary drink every day, as per a new study.

The research indicated that for each 5 per cent increase of a person’s total energy intake provided by sweet drinks including soft drinks, the risk of developing type 2 diabetes may increase by 18 per cent.

However, the study also estimates that replacing the daily consumption of one serving of a sugary drink with either water or unsweetened tea or coffee can lower the risk of developing diabetes between 14 per cent and 25 per cent.

Researchers added that the good news is that the study provides evidence that replacing a daily serving of a sugary soft drink or sugary milk drink with water or unsweetened tea or coffee can help to cut the risk of diabetes, offering practical suggestions for healthy alternative drinks for the prevention of diabetes.

Source Article from http://indianexpress.com/article/lifestyle/health/swap-one-daily-sugary-drink-for-water-to-cut-type-2-diabetes-risks/

Diet diary: You can’t blame family history for type 1.5 diabetes


By: Ishi Khosla

We all know that diabetes is of two kinds – type 1 diabetes also called juvenile diabetes or IDDM (Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus), which occurs in childhood, and type 2 diabetes also called adult/ maturity onset or NIDDM (non-insulin dependent Diabetes mellitus), which as the name suggests happens in adults and is associated with poor lifestyle and obesity.

Now, a new type of diabetes, called LADA (Latent Auto-immune Diabetes in adults) or Type 1.5 diabetes has been recognised. It falls in between type-1 and type-2 diabetes. LADA, also called MODY (maturity onset diabetes of the young), is a form of childhood diabetes that occurs in adults over 30 years of age. In this type of diabetes, the body destroys its own insulin producing beta cells of the pancreas.

LADA was first discovered in 1993 to describe slow onset childhood diabetes (type-1) in adults. Nearly 80 per cent people with LADA are initially misdiagnosed as having type-2 diabetes. People with LADA are usually non-obese, lean and even underweight, while some may be overweight or mildly obese. Often people with LADA, may or may not have family history of type-2 diabetes, but may have a family history of other auto-immune conditions such as thyroid, arthritis, gluten-related disorders and celiac disease. They test positive for certain auto-antibodies that are not present in type-2 diabetes.

Treatment for LADA may involve diet, exercise and medication initially but eventually insulin therapy is needed. Although LADA seems to initially respond to lifestyle and medication as in type-2 diabetes, it will not halt or slow the progression of beta cell destruction and people will eventually become insulin dependent.

Dietary recommendations to manage LADA include slowing progression of the disease, management of body weight and maintaining optimum blood sugar levels. A high fibre, low glycemic index diet with anti-inflammatory foods and nutrients has been found to be useful.

Over the past few years, evidence has supported a protective role of certain nutrients, including vitamin D, vitamin A, vitamin C, selenium, magnesium, zinc, omega-3 fatty acids, prebiotics, probiotics, glutamine (an amino acid), and flavanols (plant chemicals which protect against diseases) in auto-immune conditions. Several animal and human studies have shown that diets high in omega-3 fatty acids, the kind of fat found in fish and flaxseeds, have a role in managing auto-immune diseases. Gluten-free diet have also been found to have a protective effect.


Source Article from http://indianexpress.com/article/lifestyle/health/diet-diary-you-cant-blame-family-history-for-type-1-5-diabetes-2/